About the Readiness Estimate & Deployability Index (READI)


The aim of the instrument is to advance knowledge about perceived military nursing readiness at the Department of Defense - that is - Army, Navy, and Air Force level of analysis. The primary goal is to provide Commanders and other leaders in the United States (U.S.) military with a profile of the extent to which military nurses perceive that they are prepared for the expectations and rigor of the progressively more frequent readiness missions required of military personnel. A civilian READI is also presented for medical personnel in the civilian community who are part of disaster preparedness. In the military arena, readiness has been described (Davis & Woods, 1999) as the ability of the military member to leave home for areas unknown, for indefinite periods of time, to perform multiple physically demanding tasks in austere environments. Read more below.

About READI (continued)

Readiness in the military is divided conceptually into individual and collective readiness. Individual readiness is an attribute at the level of an individual person, while collective readiness refers generally to the readiness of a group or other aggregate. The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index will focus on individual readiness. The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index (READI) used for U.S. Army medical personnel and the revised READI used for U.S. Air Force medical personnel (READI-R-AFN) is a questionnaire developed to identify how prepared nurses or other medical personnel believe they are for deployments. The completion of this questionnaire is essential in helping Commanders and those in leadership positions determine training needs in preparation for such deployments.

The READI is an index of readiness and is a comprehensive assessment. The READI-R-AFN is an index of readiness and is not a comprehensive assessment. The READI and the READI-R-AFN is a self-assessment tool or instrument to measure self-report of individual readiness along six areas not otherwise reported by the organization. The instrument measures the rich complexity of individual readiness along the lines of six dimensions:

  • Clinical Nursing Competency
  • Operational Competency
  • Airman Survival Skills
  • Physical/Psychosocial/Personal Readiness
  • Leadership and Administrative Support
  • Group Integration and Identification


There are several sections on the READI and READI-R-AFN. Completion of the survey should take less than 50 minutes for the READI and less than 30 minutes for the READI-R-AFN. Please give careful thought to each item and respond as accurately as possible. Your input is very important to Commanders and others in leadership positions in identifying and determining training needs. The results of the READI and the READI-R-AFN will focus preparations and training for readiness.


Take the READI Surveys

READI: Articles


  • Nursing Readiness: Active Duty vs Army Reserve (pdf)
  • Army Nurse Readiness Instrument: Psychometric Evaluation and Field Administration (pdf)
  • The Federal Nursing Service Award Individual Readiness
    in Nursing (pdf)
  • U.S. Army Professional Filler System Nursing Personnel: Do They Possess Competency Needed for Deployment? (pdf)

READI Revised (US Air Force)

  • The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index Revised For Air Force Nurses Short Form ( READI-R-AFN [SF]) (pdf)
  • Pilot Testing the Readiness and Deployability Index Revised for Air Force Nurses (pdf)


  • Content Validity of the Navy Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index  (READI-USN) (pdf)

Disaster READIness

  • The Rewarding Challenge of Measuring Readiness to Deploy (pdf)
  • Disaster Readiness Poster by Michelle Villagas at SNRS 2007 (pdf)
    (Be sure to zoom in the view.)
  • The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index: A Self-assessment Tool for Emergency Center RNs in Preparation for Disaster Care (pdf)
  • A Proposed Model for Military Disaster Nursing (OJI) (pdf)
  • A Proposed Model for Military Disaster Nursing (Cinahl)(pdf)

International Council Nurses (ICN)

  • Translating and Globalizing the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index (READI)to Measure Nurse Preparedness for Disasters and Conflicts 2016 (pdf)
    (Be sure to zoom in the view.)



READI: A Brief History

Dr. Carol Reineck The idea for the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Indes (READI) emerged in 1996, shortly after the United States began to play a major role in sustained humanitarian operations. The threat changed from conventional war in the 1980's to low intensity conflict in the 1990's. The low intensity conflict, then, grew into global terrorism at the turn of the 21st century. The need for nurses to be ready to practice clinical nursing skills in austere environments on a moment's notice, treating not only wounds but non-battle diseases is clear.

In 1996, the author of the READI asked subject matter experts with previous deployed nursing experience to detail their experiences. This was accomplished in professionally facilitated focus groups in 1996 and 1997, funded by a grant from the Tri-Service Nursing Research Program. Electronic brainstorming was used to capture the response of focus group members.

Text data from the focus groups were categorized into six conceptual dimensions of readiness. The Principal Investigator asked clinical nurses to write questionnaire items to assess the perceived competency along the six dimensions. The resulting pilot version of the READI was then sent to content experts for a determination of the relevance, clarity and uniqueness of each item (content validity). A small group of Army Nurse Corps personnel was asked to take the READI on two measurement occasions to test for stability of responses over time (test-retest reliability). Adjustments were made on the READI after pilot testing. Results of psychometric testing, funded by a second grant from the Congressional Tri-Service Nursing Research Program, are discussed in the article in Military Medicine, 2001.

The READI was tested with deploying units in Europe and the United States, in the active and reserve components, with nurses in the practice environment as well as those completing their Basic Officer Orientation, and with nurses in both fixed and mobile hospitals. The Air Force version was developed by LTC Terri Dremsa during her doctoral dissertation. A description of the Air Force testing of the READI will be published in Military Medicine in 2004. The Civilian version of the READI was developed by Paula Chamberlain and Carol Reineck in 2003. The READI is poised to be an instrument with great value for assessment of individual nurses in the federal, state, and private sectors. It is evolving and can continually be improved upon. Feedback on the instruments is invited and may be sent to Dr. Carol Huebner at Huebner@uthscsa.edu.

Biography - Lieutenant Colonel Theresa L. Dremsa

Biography - Lieutenant Commander Lonnie S. Hosea




Follow the following links for more information about the TriService Nursing Research Program as well as other sites relevant to military readiness and deployment.

Click on images below to open a larger view.
Photo of Tents Photo of Theresa Dremsa Lt. Colonel Photo of Bus Photo of Plane


News and Events

READI: News & Events

March 23, 2004:
To Those Concerned about Nursing Readiness,
Dr. Carol Reineck Today marks the release of a new website from
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Nursing. The website features the measurement of nursing readiness to perform nursing care in austere environments. The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index (READI), now a package of several instruments,
is the centerpiece of the new website. The READI
is a self-assessment of a nurse's readiness to perform nursing care in austere environments where modern equipment and an orderly atmosphere may not exist. The READI versions (Army, Air Force, Navy, and Civilian) were tested and refined with numerous samples of practicing clinical nurses in both fixed and mobile hospitals throughout the U.S. Department of Defense.

The new website is the culmination of a research program which began in 1996, with funding support from the U.S. Congress, administered by the Tri-Service Nursing Research Program and the Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine. The research program was also supported by funding from Delta Alpha Chapter, Sigma Theta Tau International Nursing Honorary, the Rosemary Kerr McKevitt Memorial Faculty Research Award, and from The University of Texas Health Science Center School of Nursing, Department of Acute Nursing Care.

The research program began with expert panels and progressed through instrument development and testing, and finally to web availability. The readiness instruments presented on the website began in the Army (READI), proceeded to the Air Force (U.S. Air Force READI - Revised) and the Civilian Sector (READI-Civilian). Currently, the Navy READI (READI-NAV) is under development, thereby completing a valid and reliable readiness measure for all Nurse Corps of the Department of Defense as well as for the private sector. A hallmark of the READI program is mentoring of company grade officers completing graduate education at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio , The University of Tennessee, Chattanooga, and The U.S. Army-Baylor University Program in Health Care Administration, as the development and testing proceeded. The website could not have been completed without the contributions of students who learned from the process. The statistical expertise and support of Dr. Kenneth Finstuen is also acknowledged. Acknowledgement is also extended to Dr. Lynne Connelly for her early support with expert panels building the qualitative foundation during concept clarification phase, to Dr. Barbara Covington for information technology support, and to Ms. Heather Cura for professional web services.

The website offers places to view the instruments, read the history of this research program, read journal articles about development and testing, and link to related websites. The READI instruments are in the public domain and available for your immediate use. In the future, it will be possible to enter responses online and request scoring services for individuals or units. For now, the web-availability of the READI instruments is paramount.

I am interested in your comments and feedback about the website. Contact me at HUEBNER@uthscsa.edu or 210-781-9651. Thank you again for your concern that nurses throughout our nation be READI to perform nursing care wherever and whenever needed.

Carol A. Huebner, PhD, FAAN, CENP, NEA-BC
Professor Emerita
Department of Health Restoration & Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
408 Samaritan Lane
Moscow ID 83843-8551

AMSUS Convention Photos

Click on each image for a larger view of the photo.

CPT Rivers' Mother
CPT Rivers' Mother
CPT Rivers & Mom
CPT Rivers & Mom
Talon & Rivers - Anniversary
Talon & Rivers - Anniversary
Mother, CPT Rivers, LTGEN Peak & Talon
Mother, CPT Rivers, LTGEN Peak & Talon
All of Us Again
All of Us Again
The Official Award
The Official Award



READI: Purpose

Perceived Nursing Readiness:

Instrument Development and Field Testing

Purpose: The purposes of the study were to advance understanding of the nature of perceived readiness and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to estimate perceived readiness among U.S. Army Nurses. The name of the instrument is the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Service Nursing Research Program.

Design: The design of the study was descriptive, exploratory instrument development, building on previous concept clarification. The 6 scales which Diaaterwere tested were those measuring perceptions of:

  1. clinical competency
  2. soldier/survival skills
  3. operational competency
  4. personal/physical/psychosocial stress
  5. leadership and administrative support
  6. group identification and integration.

Population/Sample: An 8-member expert panel with previous deployment experience established the validity of the initial readiness questionnaire. The sample size for reliability testing was 93 army nurses.

Method: Content validity estimation and internal consistency and test-retest techniques formed the psychometric evaluation from pilot administrations.

Data Analysis: Analysis of filed administration of the revised READI to three separate groups of nurses replicated earlier reliability results. Principle components analyses appear to support the hypothesized dimensional structure underlying questionnaire attitude items.

Findings: The READI produced psychometrically stable ratings and results. The expert panel rated each item of the READI an average of 3.6 on a scale of 1 (low) to 4 (high) on the relevance, clarity, and uniqueness of each item. The clinical nursing competency scale has 28 items (r=.71;alpha=.94). The operational nursing competency scale had 6 dichotomous items (r=.48). The personal/physical/psychosocial scale had 8 heterogeneous items (r=.78; alpha=.73). The leadership and administrative support scale had 4 items (r=.69; alpha=.83). The group integration and identification scale has 3 dichotomous items (r=.69; alpha=.72). Descriptive findings were displayed in a red, amber, green readiness format.

Conclusions & Recommendations: The READI is a valid and reliable instrument with which to estimate perceived readiness. The READI should be used on a diagnostic basis, formatted for web-enhanced administration, and expanded to all services in Department of Defense.

Implications: Perceived readiness is a construct that can be reliability measured. Estimating perceived readiness of military nurses can form an assessment on which to develop training and other programs to increase readiness.

Period of Study: July 1998 - May 2000



Open Thesis (pdf)


READI: Tutorial

Navigating the Survey:

Mouse Illustration

You will use the mouse to navigate your way through the survey. Just point the mouse curser on the area where you wish to be on the survey and click the left mouse button once.


Some of the content on the page will be interactive graphics that change as you move over the graphic. These graphics will have an interactive icon to alert you to use your mouse to further explore or move to another page. Your mouse cursor will change to a hand over these pictures or words. Hand Cursor

You will also find navigation structures within the screen known as hyperlinks. As you move your mouse within the screen, you may notice that the mouse pointer changes into a hand signaling that word is a hyperlink to allow you to go directly to another page.

You will also find drop down boxes on the survey. You will move your mouse cursor over the little arrow and left click once to see the drop down selections available for you to select. Select the answer by moving the cursor over the answer you chose and left click once. Your answer will stay in the box.

The last thing you will need to do is to submit the survey when you have completed it. Just move your mouse cursor over the submit button and left click once. You are done!

Let's try your new skill!
Click HERE
  external link to continue and take the READI (Army) survey.
Click HERE  external link to continue and take the READI Revised (Air Force) survey.
Click HERE  external link to continue and take the READI (Navy) survey.
Click HERE  external link to continue and take the Civilian READIness.



READI: Disclaimer

Web Based Model:

Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index (READI) and
The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index-Revised (READI-R)

DiaaterThe projects goal is to make the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index (READI) and the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index Revised (READI-R) available in a web based format. Web basing the READ and READI-R will enable military and civilian health care workers to easily access and utilize the instrument. The author's interest in this project began while completing a MSN under the tutelage of Dr. Carol Reineck at the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio. As an active duty Air Force Officer the author has previous experience with mobilization and deployment of military medical personnel. Web basing this instrument is the next logical step enabling the dispersal of the information for a broader audience. The ultimate goal is to have the instrument become a routine tool used by the leadership within the military to aid in identifying the needs of the medical personnel who are readying for deployment.


Permission for use of the material within this web site has been granted by:
  • Dr. Carol Reineck, PhD, RN, FAAN, CENP, NEA-BC
    Assistant Professor, (Colonel, USA, Retired)
    Email: reineck@uthscsa.edu
  • Dr. Theresa Dremsa, Lt Colonel, USAF, NC
  • Felecia Rivers, Captain/Army Nurse Corps

Special Thanks to:

  • Dr. Barbara Covington, PhD, RN
    (Colonel, USA, Retired)
  • Heather Cura, BA
    Web Specialist & Site Designer


The Tri Service Nursing Research Program (TSNRP) provided funding and oversight for several congressionally-funded research grants concerning the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index. The developers of this website extend grateful appreciation for their support and for approval to post the instrument on this website. A link to the TSNRP can be found at the links button.

Links from web sites affiliated with The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio's web site (www.uthscsa.edu) to other websites do not constitute or imply university endorsement of those sites, their content, or products and services associated with those sites. Material and links provided by the Health Science Center are for informational purposes only.

The authors have worked to ensure that all information in this web site project concerning information (current nursing practices, drug dosages, schedules, and routes of administration) are accurate as of the time of posting. As health care, nursing research, and practice advance, however, standard practices and therapeutic standards may change. For this reason and because human and mechanical errors sometimes occur, we recommend that the reader follow the advise/guidance of current published approved practice standards/information.

© 2002-2009 Felecia Harrell Rivers, CPT/AN, MSNc, RN.
This site is the intellectual property of the copyright holder. Electronic version of survey adapted with permission from original material developed by Carol Reineck COL/AN (ret), Ph.D.

No portion of it may be used without the expressed consent of the authors.